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Nowadays, the application range of lithium batteries is more and more extensive, and the market share of lead-acid batteries is getting smaller and smaller. Why is this happening? Why is UPS power more and more popular with lithium battery UPS instead of lead acid battery?
Regarding the above problems, it is related to the characteristics of the lithium battery and the lead-acid battery. Here is some of the specific reasons for this.
Lithium battery composition
The positive electrode - the active material is generally lithium manganate or lithium cobalt oxide, lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide material, electric bicycle is generally used nickel cobalt cobalt manganate (commonly known as ternary) or ternary + small amount of lithium manganate, pure manganese acid Lithium and lithium iron phosphate are gradually faded out due to their large size, poor performance or high cost. The electrode fluid is an electrolytic aluminum foil having a thickness of 10 to 20 μm.
Negative Electrode - The active material is graphite, or carbon of approximately graphite structure, and the conductive current collector uses an electrolytic copper foil having a thickness of 7-15 microns.
Diaphragm - a specially formed polymer film with a microporous structure that allows lithium ions to pass freely without electrons passing.
The organic electrolyte is a carbonate solvent in which lithium hexafluorophosphate is dissolved, and the polymer is a gel electrolyte.
Battery case - divided into steel shell (square type is rarely used), aluminum shell, nickel-plated iron shell (used in cylindrical batteries), aluminum plastic film (soft packaging), etc., as well as battery caps, also the positive and negative terminals of the battery end.
Lead acid battery
The positive electrode - the main component is a lead-bismuth-calcium alloy fence with lead oxide as the active substance. Ensure sufficient capacity to maintain battery capacity and reduce self-discharge during long-term use.
The negative electrode is a lead-bismuth-calcium alloy baffle containing a sponge-like fibrous active material.
Separator - An advanced microporous AGM separator maintains the electrolyte to prevent short circuit between the positive and negative electrodes and prevent active material from falling off the electrode surface.
Organic electrolyte - In the electrochemical reaction of the battery, sulfuric acid acts as an electrolyte to conduct ions, allowing electrons to transfer between the positive and negative active materials of the battery.
Battery Housing - Unless otherwise specified, the housing and cover are ABS resin, providing space for the battery's positive and negative combination panels.
Lithium battery compared with lead acid battery
■ Environmental impact
The positive and negative electrodes of the lithium battery and the chemical reaction materials such as the electrolyte are all materials that are not polluting to the environment, and even if the lithium battery leaks, it will not have much impact on the environment. The lead-acid battery contains lead, sulfuric acid, etc., and if it leaks, it will cause great harm to the environment.
The composition of the lithium battery is higher than that of the lead-acid battery. In the case of high temperature or overcharge, the material of the lithium battery does not collapse or form a strong oxidizing substance. When over-discharged, the lead-acid battery plate will be vulcanized and the battery quality will be deteriorated. Therefore, the safety of the lithium battery is stronger than that of the lead-acid battery.
Under the same capacity, the volume and weight of the lithium battery are one-third of the lead-acid battery, which can effectively save the installation space, and does not require too much consideration for the load-bearing of the floor.
Lithium batteries do not need to be maintained frequently in a short period of time like lead-acid batteries, and the cycle life of lithium batteries is several times higher than that of lead-acid batteries. Lead-acid batteries also need air conditioning to regulate the overall environment, but the high-end lithium battery UPS itself has a number of adjustment functions, which can reduce a large part of additional equipment purchase, maintenance and electricity. Although the purchase cost of the two is lower than that of the lithium battery, the overall cost of the lithium battery is lower than that of the lead acid battery. Compared with the energy storage battery inside the UPS, the lithium battery has better advantages than the lead acid battery and the safety performance. Therefore, lithium battery UPS is widely used in the era of environmental protection and efficiency in comparison with lead-acid UPS.